Adrenal Crisis!

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If left untreated, adrenal insufficiency can cause serious illness or death. But by working with their doctors and nurses, patients can learn how to manage this condition.

Staticnrg shared these two documents with us to use in case of Adrenal Crisis. She suggests laminating them or putting in a plastic page protector. She writes:

I modified something that was given to me, so I can't take full credit. However, it doesn't look much like the one I got. ;) Dr. F sent it to me, but he got it off the UK Addison's site. It was 4 pages long. I condensed it so it's easier for the lay person to understand. You may want to note that it was modified from information on the UK Addison's site just in case.

MaryO shares a knol that was written in 2008. It was accepted by the Open Journal of Medicine.

Now that knols are being discontinued, the Open Journal moved this to their site but all of the images were lost in the move. Also, the name of one of their authors was added to this knol.

I'm posting this here to keep the information as it was, not as it has morphed into.


Alternative names:

adrenal crisis; Addisonian crisis; acute adrenal insufficiency

Definition:

An abrupt, life-threatening state caused by insufficient cortisol, a hormone produced and released by the adrenal gland.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

The two adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys. They consist of the outer portion, called the cortex, and the inner portion, called the medulla. The cortex produces three types of hormones, which are called corticosteroids. The androgens and estrogens affect sexual development and reproduction. The glucocorticoids maintain glucose regulation, suppress the immune response, and provide for the response to stress (cortisol). The mineralocorticoids regulate sodium and potassium balance. These hormones are essential for life. Acute adrenal crisis is an emergency caused by decreased cortisol. The crisis may occur in a person with Addison's disease, or as the first sign of adrenal insufficiency. More uncommonly, it may be caused by a pituitary gland disorder. It may also be caused by sudden withdrawal of corticosteroids, removal or injury of the adrenal glands, or destruction of the pituitary gland. Risk factors are stress, trauma, surgery, or infection in a person with Addison's disease, or injury or trauma to the adrenal glands or the pituitary gland. The incidence is 4 out of 100,000 people.

Prevention:

People who have Addison's disease should be taught to recognize signs of potential stress that may precipitate an acute adrenal crisis (cause it to occur suddenly and unexpectedly). Most people with Addison's disease are taught to give themselves an emergency injection of hydrocortisone in times of stress. It is important for the individual with Addison's disease to always carry a medical identification card that states the type of medication and the proper dose needed in case of an emergency. Never omit medication. If unable to retain medication due to vomiting, notify the health care provider.

Symptoms

  • headache
  • profound weakness
  • fatigue
  • slow, sluggish, lethargic movement
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • low blood pressure
  • dehydration
  • high fever
  • chills shaking
  • confusion or coma
  • darkening of the skin
  • rapid heart rate
  • joint pain
  • abdominal pain
  • unintentional weight loss
  • rapid respiratory rate
  • unusual and excessive sweating on face and/or palms
  • skin rash or lesion may be present
  • flank pain
  • appetite, loss

Signs and tests:

  • An ACTH (cortrosyn) stimulation test shows low cortisol.
  • The cortisol level is low.
  • The fasting blood sugar may be low.
  • The serum potassium is elevated.
  • The serum sodium is decreased.
  • This disease may also alter the results of the following tests:
    • sodium, urine
    • 17-hydroxycorticosteroids

Treatment:

In adrenal crisis, an intravenous or intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone (an injectable corticosteroid) must be given immediately. Supportive treatment of low blood pressure is usually necessary. Hospitalization is required for adequate treatment and monitoring. Low blood pressure may be treated with intravenous fluids. If infection is the cause of the crisis, antibiotic therapy is indicated.

DebMV suggested that you should have a Medic Alert bracelet from medicalert.org Toll free number in the USA is: by phone 7 days a week, 24 hours a day: 888-633-4298 209-668-3333 from outside the U.S.

Expectations (prognosis):

Death may occur due to overwhelming shock if early treatment is not provided.

Complications:

  • shock
  • coma
  • seizures

New Blog Post!

Staticnrg wrote a great blog post about Jackie and Sam dealing with Adrenal Crisis. This is a very important article that all should read. Be your own advocate!

New PDF!

Managing Adrenal Insufficiency

New Podcast on Adrenal Crisis

http://www.blogtalkradio.com/CushingsHelp/2008/02/29/JenS-discusses-Bilateral-Adrenalectomy-BLA Podcast: Adrenal Crisis]

From A Paramedic

and posted on the message boards

I'd like to add a couple things from the perspective of a Paramedic...

A lot of us are not taught about adrenal insufficiency during our education....nor do many of us (if any at all) have a protocol to administer Injectable for AI unless we are able to contact the ER doctor for permission. So...if any of you should have an AI crisis please gently nudge your paramedic to contact the receiving physician for permission to administer the medication. I know this sounds like a lot of responsibility on the part of the patient...but you have to realize that we're taught to recognize the most common life threats and endocrine disorders (other than diabetes) most usually do not present with life threats (we all know that as cushing's is more recognized that this will change)...and our protocols cover the most common life threats....so while we may recognize that you are hypotensive and need fluids (IV) and are sweaty, nauseated, decreased level of responsiveness etc...we are not equipped to deal with the actual cause unless you help educate us....

Also...please don't get angry with us....if we are having problems understanding...just gently insist that a call be made to your doctor or the receiving ED (usually not feasible for us to call your doctor since they do not come to the phone for just anybody but if you have access to them, as many cushies do, it would be great to talk to them)...

Paramedicine is evolving....someday soon, hopefully, our education will include more diagnostic skills...untill just in the past 5 years or so we were NEVER to make a diagnosis at all...just treat the symptoms!!!! So there is hope out there for futher understanding of such a critical problem for those without adrenal (or asleep adrenals) glands....

The medical alert jewerly is a life-saver and we do look for it....

Be sure to print this page to carry with you.

From the NIH. This information was developed by the patient care staff of the Clinical Center to help patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) understand their condition and how to take care of it. It explains what causes adrenal insufficiency and how it can be controlled. If left untreated, adrenal insufficiency can cause serious illness or death. But by working with their doctors and nurses, patients can learn how to manage this condition.

Personal Experiences

It happened in early August, and quite frankly I haven't had to strength, spirit, energy, to give an update. I was away at NIH with Jordan for her yearly follow up... I left Sam with her dad and 14 year old sister.

This is how Jackie, Sam’s mother who posts on the cushings-help.com message boards as Samsmom, started a post. My heart sank when I read it. Read the rest here: Stars Go Blue

As with most mornings, this one began with nausea. I'm used to it, so didn't think much about it. I made it to the bathroom and was feeling really awful. Decided to just go to the toilet because I had that impending feeling.



Next thing I knew I was waking up, but it wasn't like a normal awakening. I remember being in a tunnel and then thinking, "Well, this isn't where I normally sleep." Then I realized of course it wasn't where I normally slept! Normally I sleep in a bed, not wedged between a wall and the toilet. (Not that I was that coherent).



I was completely disoriented as to time, place, etc. I had one big yell in me and yelled "HELP". My four year old brought me the phone and my son got me a towel. I called 911 (thank God I had a 911 sticker on the phone because I really couldn't remember the number). I kept telling the dispatcher I was in adrenal crisis. Of course, that meant nothing to him. I had my son get my shot but somewhere I knew that I wasn't together enough to give myself the shot. So I puked a few more times and told my son to take my daughter upstairs so she wasn't scared when the ambulance came.

I decided to rest on the floor of the bathroom. I had, at first, tried to go to the couch but I was much, much too weak. So my son directed the medics into the bathroom. They eventually carried me to the couch. I kept telling them about my shot, but couldn't remember where I had my letter from Dr. Cook. They thought I was an overdose or a psych case (they told me later). They had all my pills lined up and were asking when I took this or that one last. I finally told them to look at the friggin date on the bottle and see that they were all 3/4 full. (I was agitated, too)

They put the heart monitor on me and inserted an IV and took me to the hospital. I puked one more time in the ambulance and when we arrived (though my tummy was empty). My brother and sister-in-law where there (hospital) when I arrived and my mom had arrived at my house to take care of the kids as we were leaving. Then she met us up there.

Before we arrived at the hospital, my husband had faxed a copy of Dr. Cook's letter on how to treat me over (Brian was at work when this happened). So they came in and inserted another fluid bag. Then about ten minutes later (after my brother told the doctor, "I fully expect that my sister will have her shot withing the next ten minutes" - patient advocates are a good thing because I could've cared less at that point) I had my 100 mg shot of solu-medrol. I was lucky because my doctor in the ER knew about adrenal crisis.

Then I had another bag and repeated tests of my bp and heartrate. It wasn't pretty - every time my bp was low, generally around 80/50, sometimes lower and my heart rate was 120+. They decided to admit me, but I fought and fought. Once I got a shot of Zofran (anti-nausea, best in the world) and my cortisone and some fluid, I was feeling decent. I look and feel like I've been through a war, but I'm alive.

As to why this happened, we're not entirely sure at this point. I have one urine test that they're culturing or something. I might also have shingles, but again - that'll show up in due time (a day or two, if I have it). Or, as Dr. Cook said when I talked to him, sometimes we just don't know. I was doing so well on my meds, back up to 27.5 and feeling good. Now I'm on 40 for the next day, and 30 for a week. Frustrating.

Adrenal crisis is awful. It's terrifying. And what makes me want to cry as I write this (who am I kidding, I am crying) is that I couldn't have cared less if I lived or died. I was not in my right mind, I felt so horrid. All the surgeries combined, today was the worst day I've ever had. And it was a huge wake-up call. I need to have a better medic-alert bracelet because they had no idea what "Stress dose steroids" were. I need to have a list of what to do in crisis on my fridge, in my purse and with every family member. Same with the letter from my endo on how to treat me. Because when I'm in crisis, I don't know any better. I need to have things that speak for me. Thank God for family that knows, and for good doctors.

Anyway, I didn't post this to scare anyone but Adrenal Crisis is not something to take lightly. When I felt myself hurting the night before (back pain, possibly shingles though I doubt it) I should've just taken an extra 5 mgs. Would've been a heck of a lot easier than what happened today.

A few funny parts of the day: My daughter had to dress herself and my mom was in a hurry to get her to daycare and come see me. So my daughter spent the day at daycare in tights, too small shorts and a turtleneck (none of which came close to matching). Oh, and black patent leather shoes.

Also, the medics asked what I weighed. Out of habit, I said 222 (my highest Cushing's weight). They ALL did a double take and said no way. One guessed 140 - bless his heart. I never did get myself weighed so I don't even know.

Oh, and if any of you called at about 8 am and spoke with a medic, call me back. lol I had a blocked call at 8am, and I vaguely remember the medic talking to someone but I wasn't with it enough to ask who called. lol

Something I don't say enough: I love and value you all.

Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated With hGH

Recently, doctors conducting the follow-up study of individuals treated with hGH looked at causes of death among recipients and found some disturbing news. Many more people have died from a treatable condition called adrenal crisis than from CJD.

This risk does not affect every recipient. It can affect those who lack other hormones in addition to growth hormone. Please read on to find out if this risk applies to you. Death from adrenal crisis can be prevented.

Adrenal crisis is a serious condition that can cause death in people who lack the pituitary hormone ACTH. ACTH is responsible for regulating the adrenal gland. Often, people are unaware that they lack this hormone and therefore do not know about their risk of adrenal crisis.

Most people who were treated with hGH did not make enough of their own growth hormone. Some of them lacked growth hormone because they had birth defects, tumors or other diseases that cause the pituitary gland to malfunction or shut down. People with those problems frequently lack other key hormones made by the pituitary gland, such as ACTH, which directs the adrenal gland to make cortisol, a hormone necessary for life. Having too little cortisol can be fatal if not properly treated.

Treatment with hGH does not cause adrenal crisis, but because a number of people lacking growth hormone also lack ACTH, adrenal crisis has occurred in some people who were treated with hGH. In earlier updates we have talked about how adrenal crisis can be prevented, but people continue to die from adrenal crisis, which is brought on by lack of cortisol. These deaths can be prevented. Please talk to your doctor about whether you are at risk for adrenal crisis.

Why should people treated with hGH know about adrenal crisis?

Among the people who received hGH, those who had birth defects, tumors, and other diseases affecting the brain lacked hGH and often, other hormones made by the pituitary gland. A shortage of the hormones that regulate the adrenal glands can cause many health problems. It can also lead to death from adrenal crisis. This tragedy can be prevented.

What are adrenal hormones?

The pituitary gland makes many hormones, including growth hormone and ACTH, a hormone which signals the adrenal glands to make cortisol, a hormone needed for life. If the adrenal gland doesn't make enough cortisol, replacement medications must be taken. The most common medicines used for cortisol replacement are:

  • Hydrocortisone
  • Prednisone
  • Dexamethasone

What is adrenal crisis?

Adrenal hormones are needed for life. The system that pumps blood through the body cannot work during times of physical stress, such as illness or injury, if there is a severe lack of cortisol (or its replacement). People who lack cortisol must take their cortisol replacement medication on a regular basis, and when they are sick or injured, they must take extra cortisol replacement to prevent adrenal crisis. When there is not enough cortisol, adrenal crisis can occur and may rapidly lead to death.

What are the symptoms of lack of adrenal hormones?

If you don't have enough cortisol or its replacement, you may have some of these problems:

  • feeling weak
  • feeling tired all the time
  • feeling sick to your stomach
  • vomiting
  • no appetite
  • weight loss

When someone with adrenal gland problems has weakness, nausea, or vomiting, that person needs immediate emergency treatment to prevent adrenal crisis and possible death.

Why are adrenal hormones so important?

Cortisol (or its replacement) helps the body respond to stress from infection, injury, or surgery. The normal adrenal gland responds to serious illness by making up to 10 times more cortisol than it usually makes. It automatically makes as much as the body needs. If you are taking a cortisol replacement drug because your body cannot make these hormones, you must increase the cortisol replacement drugs during times of illness, injury, or surgery. Some people make enough cortisol for times when they feel well, but not enough to meet greater needs when they are ill or injured. Those people might not need cortisol replacement every day but may need to take cortisol replacement medication when their body is under stress. Adrenal crisis is extremely serious and can cause death if not treated promptly. Discuss this problem with your doctor to help decide whether you need more medication or other treatment to protect your health.

How is adrenal crisis treated?

People with adrenal crisis need immediate treatment. Any delay can cause death. When people with adrenal crisis are vomiting or unconscious and cannot take medicine, the hormones can be given as an injection. Getting an injection of adrenal hormones can save your life if you are in adrenal crisis. If you lack the ability to make cortisol naturally, you should carry a medical ID card and wear a Medic-Alert bracelet to tell emergency workers that you lack adrenal hormones and need treatment. This precaution can save your life if you are sick or injured.

How can I prevent adrenal crisis?

  • If you are always tired, feel weak, and have lost weight, ask your doctor if you might have a shortage of adrenal hormones.
  • If you take hydrocortisone, prednisone, or dexamethasone, learn how to increase the dose when you become ill.
  • If you are very ill, especially if you are vomiting and cannot take pills, seek emergency medical care immediately. Make sure you have a hydrocortisone injection with you at all times, and make sure that you and those around you (in case you're not conscious) know how and when to administer the injection.
  • Carry a medical ID card and wear a bracelet telling emergency workers that you have adrenal insufficiency and need cortisol. This way, they can treat you right away if you are injured.

Remember: Some people who lacked growth hormone may also lack cortisol, a hormone necessary for life. Lack of cortisol can cause adrenal crisis, a preventable condition that can cause death if treated improperly.

Deaths from adrenal crisis can be prevented if patients and their families recognize the condition and are careful to treat it right away.

Adrenal crisis is a medical emergency. Know the symptoms and how to adjust your medication when you are ill. Taking these precautions can save your life.


For more personal experiences, see the message boards

More to be added in the next few days...